The spatial distribution of smoking violations on a non-smoking campus: Implications for prevention
Objective: The present study extends research on campus smoking bans by examining where smokers are violating the policy at a large university in the southeastern region of the United States. Participants: The data collection was conducted by one graduate student from the university in August of 2014. Methods: A global positioning system device was used to collect the geo-coordinates of littered cigarette butts as a proxy measure for smoking violations. Results: A hot spot analysis found a number of spatial concentrations on campus, largely around classroom and administrative buildings along with parking lots and garages. Conclusions: The implications of such findings can direct enforcement to target these areas in order to reduce offenses and fulfill the initial goals of policy-makers and university administrators who support smoke-free campuses.